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Polymer and Polymer-Hybrid NaNoParticles From Synthesis to by Stanislav Rangelov;Asterios Pispas

By Stanislav Rangelov;Asterios Pispas

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Biological Chemistry of Organelle Formation

Eukaryotic cells comprise a plurality of organelles uncommon via their particular membranes and contents. Their biogenesis happens by means of progress and department of preexisting buildings instead of de novo. Mitochondria and chloroplasts, which seem to be descended from prokaryotic ancestors, have retained a few DNA and the biosynthetic potential for its expression.

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17 Synthesis of poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-bPEO-b-PtBA) triblock terpolymers. (Xiang et al. 2011). A carboxyl-end-functionalized PLA was reacted with excess N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). After completion of the reaction, H2NCH2CH2NH2 was added to the PLA-NHS endfunctionalized homopolymer giving the amino end-functionalized PLA (PLA-NH2). PLA-NH2 was then used as a macroinitiator for the polymerization of the Z-protected l-lysine-NCA resulting in the PLA-PZLLys-NH2 diblock copolymer.

Aiming at the best kinetic control of the polymerization reaction itself, in order to achieve the best possible results, as far as the molecular characteristics and the resulting polymer uniformity are concerned; and (2) exclusion of impurities that may interfere with the polymerization reaction, for example, substances that can cause termination, chain transfer, deactivation of primary initiator molecules, side reactions that lead to undesired or ill-defined polymerization routes and polymeric products, etc.

In the cases where each backbone segment carries a grafted side chain, the macromolecules are denoted as molecular brushes. The “grafting to,” “grafting from,” and “grafting through” techniques have been used successfully depending on the nature of monomers to be polymerized and of the graft copolymer to be synthesized (Pitsikalis et al. 1998, Hadjichristidis et al. 2003, Zhang and Muller 2005). The “grafting from” technique was utilized in order to prepare cylindrical bottle brushes, that is, molecular brushes with long backbones, having diblock copolymers as side chains.

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