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Principles of marketing by Philip T. Kotler, Gary Armstrong

By Philip T. Kotler, Gary Armstrong

Rules of selling: ecu version (Pie)

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We're in an age of knowledge overload, and an excessive amount of of what we watch, pay attention and skim is fallacious, deceitful or perhaps risky. but you and that i can take keep an eye on and make media serve us -- we all -- by means of being lively shoppers and members. Here's how.

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Com to WorldCom, fail because they fail to fulfil the wants and needs of others. Needs, wants and demands Human need—A state of felt deprivation. The most basic concept underlying marketing is that of human needs. Human needs are states of felt deprivation. They include basic physical needs for food, clothing, warmth and safety; social needs for belonging and affection; and individual needs for knowledge and self-expression. Marketers did not invent these needs; they are a basic part of the human make-up.

Although we normally think of marketing as being carried on by sellers, buyers also carry on marketing activities. Consumers do marketing when they search for the goods they need at prices they can afford. Company purchasing agents do marketing when they track down sellers and bargain for good terms. A sellers’ market is one in which sellers have more power and buyers must be the more active ‘marketers’. In a buyers’ market, buyers have more power and sellers have to be more active ‘marketers’.

Exchange is the core concept of marketing. For an exchange to take place, several conditions must be satisfied. Of course, at least two parties must participate and each must have something of value to offer the other. Each party must also want to deal with the other party and each must be free to accept or reject the other’s offer. Finally, each party must be able to communicate and deliver. These conditions simply make exchange possible. Whether exchange actually takes place depends on the parties coming to an agreement.

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