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Realization Probabilities: The Dynamics of Queuing Systems by Xi-Ren Cao

By Xi-Ren Cao

The thought of the operation of many glossy man-made discrete occasion platforms similar to production structures, computing device and communications networks mostly belongs within the area of queuing thought and operations examine. besides the fact that, a few contemporary study exhibits that the evolution of those man-made structures demonstrates dynamic beneficial properties which are just like these of common actual platforms. This monograph provides a multidisciplinary method of the examine of discrete occasion structures, and is complementary to textbooks in queuing and keep watch over platforms theories.

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Fn } converges to f with probability one, then f is integrable and The fact that a r a n d o m variable X is integrable is equivalent to E[IX]] < oo. Thus, the above four theorems can be written in a form with random variables. 2 Stochastic Processes Let (12, ~r, p ) be a probability space. A stochastic process defined on (12, ~ r P ) is a collection of random variables defined on 12 and indexed by a parameter regarded as representing time. We use u for the discrete index and t for the continuous one.

This can be easily proved by using the Lebesgue donimated convergence theorem stated later. 6 Consider a random sequence Xn with P ( X n = 1) = 1 and P ( X n = O) = l ~. i. The sequence converges in probability to zero, since for any 1 > e > 0, lim P[lXn[_~e]= lira 1 n ---~ OO ~ - - * OQ n ii. 1 to zero, since for any 1 > e > 0 and any n, the probability of the event with [Xk - 0 ] = 1 > e for some k > r~ is 1 - l-Ik~°=,(1 - ~). Thus, lira P([Xa - X[ > e for some k _~ u) -- l i m { 1 - H(1-1)}=1" k----n iii.

R. ,e "'" • > 0 i=1 Random Vectors An rt-dimensional random vector X = ( X 1 , X 2 , - . ~', P ) is an rt-tuple of random variables X1, X 2 , - - ' , X,,, all of them are defined on (fl, ~', P). Thus, an n-dimensional random vector is a measurable mapping from (f~, ~r, p ) to (Rn, Bn). This mapping transforms the probabifity measure P to a probability measure P ' on R n. P ' is called the distribution or the law of the random vector X. ~, x ~ ( ~ ) < . ~ , . . , x . ( ~ ) < . ) . , ~,). The probability density function is a function f ( z l , .

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