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Relativistic Heavy-Ion Physics by J. Bartke

By J. Bartke

This booklet makes an attempt to hide the attention-grabbing box of physics of relativistic heavy ions, more often than not from the experimentalist's perspective. After the introductory bankruptcy on quantum chromodynamics, uncomplicated houses of atomic nuclei, resources of relativistic nuclei, and general detector set-ups are defined in 3 next chapters. Experimental evidence on collisions of relativistic heavy ions are systematically provided in 15 consecutive chapters, ranging from the best positive factors like go sections, multiplicities, and spectra of secondary debris and going to extra concerned features like correlations, a variety of rather infrequent approaches, and newly chanced on beneficial properties: collective stream, excessive pT suppression and jet quenching. a few solely new subject matters are incorporated, resembling the variation among neutron and proton radii in nuclei, heavy hypernuclei, and electromagnetic results on secondary particle spectra.

Phenomenological methods and similar basic types are mentioned in parallel with the presentation of experimental facts. close to the tip of the e-book, fresh rules concerning the new nation of subject created in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei are mentioned. within the ultimate bankruptcy, a few predictions are given for nuclear collisions within the huge Hadron Collider (LHC), now in development on the website of the ecu association for Nuclear examine (CERN), Geneva. ultimately, the appendix provides us simple notions of relativistic kinematics, and lists the most foreign meetings concerning this box. A concise reference e-book on physics of relativistic heavy ions, it exhibits the current prestige of this field.

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The necessary timing control hardware responsible for starting and stopping the pipeline FIFO is depicted in the lower left corner of Fig. 43. where it is designated "PFG" (pipeline FIFO gate). This unit consists a of series of delay flip-flops driven by an SR flip-flop. Each delay flip-flop provides an outpu_ to a two-input AND circuit whose second input is driven by the BC clock stream. The outputs from these AND's become the clock streams for each level of the pipeline logic. In i_s "off" state, the SR flip-flop injects zeros into the delay chain, so that all the clock streams for the pipeline stages are turned off.

These trigger bits will be passed through a final pre-scale stage _d then ORed to produce the final LVL-1 trigger decision. t LOGIC LVL-1 PFG II FIFO PIPELINE 11. Bo× PFG 8 .... A D / PFG I I ---" I J T IF TOF ' TO GL1-BOX PFG 12 = Muos ,D }--L! _D { _A_ )''-''L 1_--_ TO GLI-BOX i PFG 20 TO GLI-BOX EVENT NUMBER I FEEAP ADDRESS ........ --_"_ _ 'YEA PFGIP,PEU__FOGAT_ "_'' _ iU _i_'_'- _ ..... LC_'PU: •/ X-D 1 / ..... 43:Data flowintoand schematicdiagramofLVL-I FIFO. LVL-1 FIFO Architecture The FIFO (First In.

TRIGGER SYSTEM 11-59 GlobalSum. ,, sums, but areactually countsof the number oftiles passingthecorresponding cuts• Allfourof the globalsums areprovidedto the GLI trigger. The electron and photon patternwordsareadded tothe eventstreamand providedto LVL-2. Muon Identifier The muon detector has one ofthemore selective LVL-I triggers. The muon production rate islowerthan thatforotherobservables, and the ratioof truepairsto triggered pairsisa factor ofI0larger thanthatforelectrons. Thus,thetrigger can provideuseful ratereduction at LVL-I.

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