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Religious Orders Vol 2 by David Knowles

By David Knowles

This e-book covers a interval (1336-1485) ignored by means of historians, while many gains of the fashionable global have been germinating less than the outside of medieval associations: the age of Chaucer, Langland, Bradwardine and Wyclif, of the hot Nominalism and the Conciliar flow. David Knowles devotes a part of his ebook to narrative, and half to research. the nice abbeys are at their peak of outward splendour, we see the construction schemes of Ely and Glouster, the influence of the Black demise, and the restoration from it; we see the priests and friars in controversy at Oxford, the assaults of Wyclif and the Lollards, helped by means of the satire of the poets; the conservative response, and the principles and reforms of Henry V, by means of the Indian summer season of the feudal aristocracy.

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J-B. Mahn, Le Pape Benoit XII et les Cisterciens. For Fulgens sicut Stella, v. Coquelinus, Bullarium Romanum, Hi, ii, 203 seqq. 2 RO, 1, 26. Cf. also W. H. Stevenson and H. E. Salter, The Early History of St Johns College, Oxford, 6 seqq. 26 THE HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK exceeding the lowest mark (18) of the Benedictine constitutions were not numerous. 2 At last, in 1398, the Cistercian scholars then at Oxford petitioned the chapter of England and Wales, which during the Great Schism met annually with authority, for suitable accommodation.

In the case of weaker characters, or those without a strong bent for study or for devotion, the long residence at Oxford must not only have given occasion for disciplinary lapses, but also have implanted a permanent taste for liberty and social intercourse. Besides the inevitable scandals, there is evidence of a certain amount of dissipation and waste of time in social visits. The less distinguished students, who had taken an arts course only, or who had spent a year or two learning to preach, may well have found claustral life irksome on their return.

B. Workman, John Wyclif, 1,171-84, and W. A. Pantin (cf. in particular the long note to Rashdall, Medieval Universities, ed. Powicke and Emden, in, 212, n. 1). Pantin also, in the third volume of Canterbury College, prints many of the vital documents. 4 Lit. Cant. ' 5 Pantin, Canterbury College, ill, no. 26, p. 21. Shortly after 1363 the monks of Christ Church granted their old chambers at Gloucester College to Westminster with right of reentry. The grant was later made absolute. 6 V. infra, pp.

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