By Elke Bruns, Dörte Ohlhorst, Bernd Wenzel, Johann Köppel
This cross-sectional, interdisciplinary examine strains the “history of innovation” of renewable energies in Germany. It gains 5 renewable power sectors of electrical energy iteration: biomass, photovoltaic, wind strength, geothermal power and hydropower. The examine analyzes the improvement of the respective applied sciences in addition to their contribution to electrical energy iteration. It specializes in riding forces and constraints for renewable energies within the interval among 1990 and at the present time. via monitoring the techniques and mapping the actors, the booklet solutions questions corresponding to: Which technological advancements, pivotal actors and actor constellations, which political innovations, targets and tools play an immense function within the innovation technique? What criminal, administrative, monetary and social stipulations were and nonetheless are most important? How do the conflicting goals of environmental security goals, together with the targets to conflict weather switch, healthy into the bigger photograph of strength creation? that are the variables that almost all impact the growth of renewable strength utilization, and in what way?
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Extra info for Renewable Energies in Germany’s Electricity Market: A Biography of the Innovation Process
The Stern Review forecast serious consequences for the world economy if global warming was not stopped. The Review stated that 1% of the gross domestic product would need to be spent on immediate climate protection measures. If no action were taken, the costs of climate change would equal a loss of at least 5% of the global gross domestic product, according to Stern (2007). With regard to further risks and influences, the damage could amount to at least 20% of the gross national product. The massive international media response to the Stern report once again drew the public’s attention to climate protection, the need for action and the consequences of not acting.
According to statements made by the German Minister of Economics, Michael Glos, in 2008, Germany was threatened by an “electricity gap” if nuclear Press release of the SPD parliamentary group on 26 January 2000. Germany agreed within the context of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce six greenhouse gases by 21% between 2008 and 2012. 14 Accidents in Brunsbüttel (2001) and Krümmel (2007). 15 The Federal Minister was drawing on an analysis conducted by the federally owned energy agency for power station and grid planning in Germany, called “dena”, according to which Germany will be faced with the threat of electricity undersupply from 2012 onward.
43 The Agency provides its consulting services at the request of its member states only (Bundesregierung 2008a, 7). 44 This Agency is accused of not taking a neutral stance toward the entirety of energy sources, but rather to heavily support conventional and nuclear energy supply (Scheer 2008a, 1; similar Gabriel 2009, 1). Gabriel therefore regards IRENA as an alternative to the lobby interests of the conventional energy industry (2009, 2). 1 Liberalization of the Energy Markets The EU had been encouraging the liberalization of the energy markets since the late 1980s.