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Renewable Energy. Its physics, engineering, use, by Bent Sørensen (Auth.)

By Bent Sørensen (Auth.)

Content material:
Preface to 3rd edition

, Page v
Preface to moment edition

, Pages vi-vii
Preface to first edition

, Pages viii-ix
Units & conversion factors

, Pages xvii-xviii
Chapter 1 - Perspectives

, Pages 1-28
Chapter 2 - The starting place of Renewable power Flows

, Pages 29-209
Chapter three - the person strength Sources

, Pages 210-317
Chapter four - The strength Conversion Processes

, Pages 318-522
Chapter five - power Transmission and Storage

, Pages 523-590
Chapter 6 - strength provide Systems

, Pages 591-730
Chapter 7 - Socio-Economic overview of strength offer Systems

, Pages 731-869
Chapter eight - Winding Up

, Pages 870-876
References

, Pages 877-915
Subject index

, Pages 916-928

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Extra resources for Renewable Energy. Its physics, engineering, use, environmental impacts, economy and planning aspects

Example text

N^ Natural \ . ^ \ \ \0il \ \ E o» Food energy including animal power ' " ^ ^. 17. Trends in the distribution on different types of energy resources of the average rate of energy use. The most recent period is based on smoothed data from Darmstadter et al. (1971) and European Commission (1997), and the basis for the estimates pertaining to earlier periods is explained in the text. g. the 20% contribution from fires 50 000 years ago depends sensitively on the fraction of the world population living in regions where space heating was desirable).

Again, only for the past century or two have actual data been used. The shape of the curve describing the diminishing share of food energy starting about 10^ years ago is again dependent on the picture of emerging cultures and geographical distribution of the population, outlined above. It is clear, however, that the energy basis for human societies has been renewable energy sources until quite recently. Whether all the wood usage should be counted as renewable is debatable. g. in northern Europe) involved burning forest areas for farming purposes and repeating the process in a new area after a few years, as the crop yield diminished owing to nutrient deficiency of the soil.

The average (over time and geographical location) temperature of the Earth's surface is presently 288 K. As a first approach to understanding the processes involved, one may look at the radiation flux passing through unit horizontal areas placed either at the top of the atmosphere or at the Earth's surface. The net flux is the sum (with proper signs) of the fluxes passing the area from above and from below. The flux direction towards the centre of the Earth will be taken as positive, consistent with reckoning the fluxes at the Sun as positive, if they transport energy away from the solar centre.

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