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Safety, Environmental Impact, and Economic Prospects of by R. W. Conn, J. P. Holdren, D. Steiner, D. Ehst, W. J. Hogan,

By R. W. Conn, J. P. Holdren, D. Steiner, D. Ehst, W. J. Hogan, R. A. Krakowski (auth.), Bruno Brunelli, Heinz Knoepfel (eds.)

This e-book comprises the lectures and the concluding dialogue of the "Seminar on safeguard, Environmental influence, and fiscal clients of Nuclear Fusion", which was once held at Erice, August 6-12, 1989. In opting for the contributions to this ninth assembly held by means of the overseas university of Fusion Reactor know-how on the E. Majorana heart for medical Cul­ ture in Erice, we attempted to supply a entire insurance of the numerous interre­ lated and interdisciplinary elements of what eventually seems to be the worldwide popularity standards of our society with appreciate to managed nuclear fusion. therefore, this edited selection of the papers provided may still supply an summary of those concerns. We hence wish that this ebook, with its vast topic index, can be of curiosity and support to nonfusion experts and, commonly, to people who from interest or by way of task are required to learn on those as­ pects of fusion energy.

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Sample text

The former is a standpoint that one assesses the fusion system from the surrounding environment and the latter assesses the fusion system behavior in itself. The safety ensuring principle in the figure is responsible for coordination between both viewpoints. The matter required from the societal environment to fusion systems is summarized into the safety requirements. In principle, the safety requirements for a fusion system are focused on prevention and mitigation against the radiological burden as well as in the case of fission systems.

S. regulations [47] is an impressive indicator. Hazard Measures Relating to Routine Emission and Exposures Most of the activation products in a fusion reactor remain embedded in solid structure during routine operation. mosphere have any chance of escaping to the environment under these normal conditions, and various studies have indicated that the -doses expected from these sources can easily be held within the range of 10% to 50% of the total exposure guidelines (50 l1'sv /y each from airborne and aqueous effluents) for the most exposed individual at a 1-km site boundary [71,73,74].

This would leave the capital 39 cost of fusion at '3%, as compared to 21% for coal, 437, for PWR and 56% for FBR, as a fraction of the "reference cost". Present estimates of fusion kWh-costs are all based on "conservative designs", Le, 20th century technology. g. igh-temperature superconductor technology instead of NbSn 3 , or some innovative, more efficient plasma heating or current drive systems, or materials with longer lifetimes, which may reduce the capital cost of a fusion reactor in 2050.

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