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Comparative Religion

Shamanism: the neural ecology of consciousness and healing by Michael Winkelman

By Michael Winkelman

Cross-cultural and neuropsychological views on shamanism show that it produces an adaptive integrative mode of attention. Shamanic altered states of cognizance (ASC) are with regards to mind association and techniques, displaying shamanism's drawback with socioemotional and self services of the paleomammalian mind and cognitive capacities dependent in presentational symbolism, metaphor, analogy, and mimesis. Integration of cross-cultural and neurological views illustrates homologies which show the psychobiological foundation of shamanism and soul trips, mother or father spirits, demise and rebirth, and different common kinds of shamanic cognition.Shamanic contributions to sociocultural and cognitive evolution are tested. The integrative mode of cognizance produced by way of shamanic ASC is said to basic mind features. particular psychophysiological features of ASC and their diversifications cross-culturally are illustrated. Shamanic soul trip, ownership, and meditative varieties of attention are tested from phenomenological, neurological, and epistemological views which exhibit them to be innate different types of cognition and practices for manipulating belief, consciousness, cognition, emotion, self, and identification. Shamanistic therapeutic consists of bodily and culturally mediated types of model to emphasize that are bolstered by means of techniques eliciting opioid unencumber. healing effectiveness of shamanistic practices are illustrated by means of medical study. Shamanistic therapeutic comprises methods for changing physiological, mental, and emotional responses. modern spontaneous non secular reports and disorder characterised as non secular emergencies have shamanic roots and illustrate the ongoing relevance of shamanic paradigms.

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It is this nonlinguistic template that provides the basis for symbolism and the ground from which cross-modal translations make language possible6. Hunt suggested that the visual kinesthetic felt meanings constitute â the deep structures of all representational (left hemisphere) symbolic intelligenceâ (Hunt 1989b, 207). â The bottom line here is that neurophysiological findings are congruent with phenomenological and cognitive-experimental evidence of two distinct cognitive processes in dreaming: a sequentially directed narrative component and a simultaneous visual-spatial component, each of which interacts with and may â entrainâ the otherâ (Hunt 1989b, 172).

The cholinergic system is responsible for the REM sleep induction and maintenance system, whereas the serotonergic system has an inhibitory or gating role, suppressing intrinsic cholinergic neurons (Hobson 1992). The role of serotonergic pathways in integrative neuromodulation and ASCs suggests that the differences in dreams reflect the lack of integrative influences of serotonergic pathways linking cognitive appraisal and ego systems. Shamanic practices induce this integration. Functional Aspects of Integrative Consciousness The use of procedures to alter consciousness by shamanistic practitioners is universal and has functional relationships to shamanistic goals.

Possession as Communication.

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