By Vincent May (auth.), Constantine Goudas, George Katsiaris, Vincent May, Theophanis Karambas (eds.)
Global warming, melting polar caps, emerging sea degrees and intensifying wave-current motion, elements liable for the alarming phenomena of coastal erosion at the one hand and antagonistic environmental affects and the excessive expense of 'hard' defense schemes, at the different, have created curiosity within the specified exam of the aptitude and variety of applicability of the rising and promising class of 'soft' shore safety tools. 'Soft' equipment comparable to seashore nourishment, submerged breakwaters, synthetic reefs, gravity drain platforms, floating breakwaters, plantations of hydrophylous shrubs or maybe dry branches, utilized in most cases up to now twenty years, are regarded as owning technical, environmental and monetary helpful homes deserving extra cognizance and additional developmental experimentation than has occured hitherto. however, 'hard' shore safeguard equipment reminiscent of seawalls, groins and indifferent breakwaters, artefacts borrowed from port layout and building expertise, irrespective of how good designed and good carried out they're, can not often stay away from intensification of the consequential erosive, frequently devastating, results at the down-drift seashores. additionally, they generally don't represent environmentally and financially appealing ideas for lengthy stretches of eroding coastline. Engineers and scientists training layout and implementation of shore defence schemes were acutely aware for a few years of the general public call for for better shore safeguard applied sciences. they're encouraging efforts that promise enrichment of these environmentally sound and financially beautiful equipment that may be competently applied.
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Extra resources for Soft Shore Protection: An Environmental Innovation in Coastal Engineering
By contrast, the Sand Key projects were surveyed at no less than quarterly intervals. The duration of the monitoring was a minimum of four years at each site, with eight years for Redington Beach. In addition, sediment samples were collected and analyzed from three sites along each profile: the backbeach, the foreshore and the surf zone. Although each of the three nourishment projects was considered to be successful, there were significant differences in their performance. All exceeded their design lifetime.
B) Lowstand beaches are usually very well preserved and seismically easy to detect. Their textural characteristics are usually very favourable for sand exploitation (well sorted medium sand) even though thcrc is usually quite high percentage of bioclasts that may prove problematical for the siliciclastic beaches to be nourished. Typically, they are only covered by a thin veneer of highstand mud or outcrop directly on the seafloor. The main limit for their exploitation is the water depth at which they are found, typically greater than 100 m.
The technique described above utilizing a dragline and conveyor system was used because it saved about 25% of the projected cost of the project. This method produced a very nice, soft beach that was greeted with enthusiasm by all of its visitors even though it contained up to 15% shell debris. This project was almost 5 km along the shoreline and included 900 000 cubic meters of borrow material. l per cubic meter. RICHARD A. DAVIS, Jr. 24 This was about US$3-4 million lower than expected because of the atypical construction techniques.