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Solvated Electron by Gould R.F. (ed.)

By Gould R.F. (ed.)

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I-...... 01 % --·-1 lppm lppb Concentration Figure 4 Dependence of coefficient of variation on concentration for topical analyses. Reproduced by permission of the Royal Society of Chemistry from W. Horwitz and R. Albert, Anal. , 1987, 24,49 an analytical measurement. The term 'analytical system' is used instead of 'analytical method' since 'the method' per se constitutes only part of the total variation observed during its use. Such additional factors include the analyst, the environment, the brand of instrument used, the quality of reagents, the nature of samples, the protocols used for calibration and reagent blank correction.

K is then a measure of the relative selectivity of the resin for K+ over Na+. 0591 log (aHJO+ +KHJO+, Na+ . aNa+) (10) Many published analytical methods express selectivity in terms of the effects of a stated concentration of an interference on the recovery of the analyte. For example, microgram quantities of Se can be determined by reduction of Se in samples taken from the environment to Se2-, acidification to produce H2Se, which is then trapped in an alkaline solution to be determined by cathodic stripping voltamrnetry (CSV) as HgSe.

G. the chelating agent 8-hydroxyquinoline together with tannic acid and thioanilide has been used on a soil extract to effect coprecipitation of the major constituent Al together with trace elements Co, Ni, Mo, Sn, Pb, Zn, Cr, V, Ti, Be and Ge. 37 This concentration method is useful in ensuring that all spectrographic determinations are made in similar matrices, so eliminating errors due to variations in the major composition of materials such as plant ashes. 6). A basic requirement is that the analyte should be uncharged or form part of an uncharged ionic aggregate.

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