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Solvent Extraction and Praciice by Rydberg J., et al.

By Rydberg J., et al.

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On the other hand, thermodynamic values, obtained by measuring certain bulk properties of the system, require the aid of statistical mechanical methods to be related to specific interactions between the solute and the solvent. However, the thermodynamic aspects of the solute–solvent interactions reflect the preference of the solute for one solvent over another and, thereby, determine distribution of the solute in a solvent extraction system. 2 Thermodynamics of the Interactions What quantity describes best the totality of these solute–solvent interactions and how can the various contributions to them be estimated?

Extensive tables of solute parameters are beyond the scope of this book. 12) are meant to show the nature of the dependencies of the additive terms on various quantities. They enable the prediction of tendencies of solute–solvent interactions for a given solute with a series of solvents or for a series of solutes with a given solvent. 3 Solvation of Electrolytes If the solute B is an electrolyte that dissociates into ions in the solvent in question, the solvation of each ion separately may be considered in the hypothetical transfer process, although experimentally only quantities pertaining to the entire electrolyte can be measured [5].

In many other instances (unfortunately in many that pertain to practical solvent extraction), such an approximation is far from being valid, and quite incorrect estimates of properties of the real systems can result from ignoring the deviations from the ideal. 1 One Liquid Phase Consider two liquid substances that are rather similar, such as benzene and toluene or water and ethylene glycol. , xA, according to Eq. 2)]. The energy or heat of the mutual interactions between the molecules of the components is similar to that of their self interactions, because of the similarity of the two liquids, and the molecules of A and B are distributed completely randomly in the mixture.

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