By Graeme Barker, David Gilbertson
Many dryland areas include archaeological continues to be which recommend that there should have been in depth stages of cost in what now appear to be dry and degraded environments. This booklet discusses successes and screw ups of prior land use and cost in drylands, and contributes to wider debates approximately desertification and the sustainability of dryland cost.
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Extra info for The Archaeology of Drylands: Living at the Margin (One World Archaeology)
Katz (eds) African Food Systems in Crisis. Part One: Micro-Perspectives : 111– 62. New York, Gordon and Breach. G. (1977) The African Aqualithic. Antiquity 51:25–34. G. J. (1993) (eds) Landscape Sensitivity . Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. G. J. (1994) Desertification: Exploding the Myth . Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. , Mortimore, M. and Gichuki, F. (1994) More People, Less Erosion: Environmental Recovery in Kenya . Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. K. A. (1992) (eds) The World Environment 1972–1992 .
3). Common themes, though, as we discuss below, do not equate with similar solutions to dryland living, or similar responses to risks and opportunities. The archaeology of drylands 6 THEMES IN DRYLAND ARCHAEOLOGY The term ‘drylands’ obviously fixes attention upon low precipitation. Common knowledge emphasizes that the climatic significance of this shortage depends upon the other aspects of the atmospheric environment—the radiation budget, thermal regime, wind regime, the sources and pathways of moisture, including fog, as well as the many other components of the biosphere and lithosphere that play significant parts in the hydrological cycle.
Yet in the adjacent deserts of southern Jordan, the Wadi Faynan Landscape Survey (with many of the same members as the UNESCO Libyan Valleys Survey, and using similar methodologies) has found convincing evidence for dramatic humanly-induced land degradation in the wake of agricultural and industrial intensification in the context of Roman imperialism. In the Saharan Fezzan, Garamantian development of foggara irrigation systems may have been a key factor leading to the decline of their civilization as a result of over-extraction from a non-renewable groundwater source (Mattingly, Chapter 9).