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The Dynamics of Science and Technology: Social Values, by Peter Janich (auth.), Wolfgang Krohn, Edwin T. Layton Jr.,

By Peter Janich (auth.), Wolfgang Krohn, Edwin T. Layton Jr., Peter Weingart (eds.)

The interrelations of technological know-how and expertise as an item of analysis appear to have drawn the eye of a few disciplines: the background of either technology and expertise, sociology, economics and financial heritage, or even the philosophy of technological know-how. The query that involves brain is whether or not the phenomenon itself is new or if advances within the disciplines concerned account for this novel curiosity, or, actually, if either are intercon­ nected. while the editors got down to plan this quantity, their roughly specific conviction was once that the connection of technology and know-how did show a brand new configuration and that the disciplines curious about 1tS research failed at the very least partially to house the switch as a result of conceptual and methodological preconceptions. to assert this doesn't suggest a verdict at the insufficiency of 1 and the prevalence of the other one disciplinary process. particularly, the placement is far extra complicated. In economics, for instance, the curiosity within the dating among technological know-how and know-how is deeply prompted via the theoretical challenge of accounting for the criteria of financial progress. the first challenge is with expertise and the matter is whether or not the industry induces technological advances or whether or not they set off new calls for that specify the following diffusion of latest applied sciences. technological know-how is usually thought of to be an exogenous issue in a roundabout way topic to industry forces and, as a result, seems to be of no interest.

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An explicit critique of empiricist theories of metrization is developed in 'Protophysics of Time' (cf. Note 2). 5. The term 'protophysics' (although occurring already in the 16th century in different connections and senses) was first proposed by P. Lorenzen in the sense meant above. Cf. P. Lorenzen, 'Wie ist die Objektivitat der Physik moglich'r, in P. Lorenzen, Methodisches Denken, pp. 142~151. GOAL DIRECTION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH RON JOHNSTON Liberal Studies in Science, Manchester University and TOM JAGTENBERG School of Sociology, University of Wollongong 1.

There are two particular fields of technology which have to be looked at from a methodological point of view, namely the technology of measurement and the technology of observation. 'Technology of measurement' means the highly developed instrumental support of measurement in modern experimental science. Anyone who is interested can inform himself in a modern physical laboratory - if he is prepared to admit that he already requires a lot of physical knowledge in order to be able to understand how physicists gain physical knowledge.

It is important to recognise that we are not here considering the goal of 'science'. Along with Richter (47) we reject the notion that the concept of goal can be fruitfully applied to the whole enterprise of science. Recent developments within the sociology of scientific knowledge (48) emphasise the distinctive cognitive and social structure of different sciences. However, whether science is examined from a cognitive perspective, be it discipline, specialty or research area, or from an occupational standpoint, in industry, government or university, we would argue that the concept of goal can provide a very useful insight into the ways in which the modern sciences reflect and can be directed to the needs of industralised society.

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