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The Earth's Crust and Mantle by F.A. VENING MEINESZ (Eds.)

By F.A. VENING MEINESZ (Eds.)

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This would classify the Puerto Rico Trench, of which the axis has a west—east direction, as a central trench. The central part would then run from north of Cape Maisi up to Barbados, and from Trinidad to Venezuela, while the whole offset belt from north-northeast of the end of the former belt to the end of this belt north of the mouth of the Magdalena River, also belongs to the central parts. From Barbados over Tobago to Trinidad the belt must be of the wing type. This is in harmony with the much smaller values there of the negative anomalies.

This would lead to the hypothesis that a mantle current flows in an azimuth of Ν35Έ from below the South American continent. This would classify the Puerto Rico Trench, of which the axis has a west—east direction, as a central trench. The central part would then run from north of Cape Maisi up to Barbados, and from Trinidad to Venezuela, while the whole offset belt from north-northeast of the end of the former belt to the end of this belt north of the mouth of the Magdalena River, also belongs to the central parts.

9. 7. Crustal phenomena and deformations in the ocean crust It is likely that plastic down-buckling of the crust, effects of horizontal tension in the crust, and crustal wrench faulting, also occur in the ocean crust. We shall see that the first phenomenon has great geophysical importance. Outside the sedimentation belt surrounding the continents the oceanic crust probably consists of only a thin layer of basalt a few kilometres thick, possibly covered by a few kilometres of sediments. Below that the bulk of the crust consists mainly of the same olivine which forms the upper mantle, but at a lower temperature than at greater depth and, therefore, having a higher elastic limit and higher viscosity.

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