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This paintings debates and investigates the the cross-compliance approach: the place farmers conform to definite criteria on the subject of the surroundings, foodstuff safeguard and animal and plant health.
It discusses cross-compliance within the context of present criteria, on-farm expenses and the competitiveness of farm companies. reading the economics of legislation either in the inner industry of the ecu and the wider global marketplace through reading a wide variety of agricultural items, this source might be of worth to agriculture and source economists, coverage makers, researchers and scholars in environmental and agricultural coverage and modelling.
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Extra info for The economics of regulation in agriculture : compliance with public and private standards
1 Environmental conditionality applied to CAP direct payments 1992-2005 Date Type of Support Sectors Conditionality 1992 Livestock headage payments Beef cattle and sheep ‘Appropriate Environmental Measures’ Member States given the option to attach ‘environmental measures’ to receipt of payments. MacSharry CAP Reform Implemented from 1994 Maximum stocking densities Recipients of beef payments required to comply with maximum stocking densities. Set-aside 1999 Agenda 2000 CAP Reform Arable Direct payments All those in receipt based mainly on crop of direct payments area or livestock numbers Implemented from 2000 Member States to apply appropriate measures to ensure set-aside is managed with a view to protecting the environment.
There could be a financial impact on farm businesses from the loss of a crop on the 2m uncultivated strips, although most field margins tend to be less productive than the field as a whole. In some areas the total hedge width may be equal to 4m or more and therefore, there would be no need to have an additional uncultivated strip. As a result, areas where hedgerows are traditionally quite narrow with minimal shading will experience the larger yield reductions. The impact will also fall disproportionately on those with relatively small fields and/or those farms with a high density of watercourses and hedgerows.
5 livestock units per hectare (LU/ha) in 1993, to decline to 2 LU/ha by 1996 for the Suckler Cow Premium and Special Beef Premium as set out by Council Regulation 2066/92. 4 LU/ha or less could qualify for an additional extensification premium (Lowe and Baldock, 2000). Third, with respect to land entered into the set-aside scheme, Member States were required to apply „appropriate measures … to ensure the protection of the environment‟ (Commission Regulation 2293/92) and to reduce or withdraw benefits received through the scheme for those found not to be compliant.