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The Elements: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short by Philip Ball

By Philip Ball

This Very brief advent is a thrilling and non-traditional method of knowing the terminology, houses, and category of chemical components. It strains the historical past and cultural influence of the weather on humankind, and examines why humans have lengthy sought to spot the elements round them.

The publication contains chapters on specific parts akin to gold, iron, and oxygen, displaying how they formed tradition and expertise. taking a look past the Periodic desk, the writer examines our courting with topic, from the simple imaginative and prescient of the Greek philosophers, who believed there have been 4 elements--earth, air, hearth, and water--to the paintings of modern day scientists in growing components comparable to hassium and meitnerium. full of anecdotes, the weather is a hugely attractive and enjoyable exploration of the elemental query: what's the global made up of?

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Effects of this kind will be discussed in more detail later. , 1990, Final report of the HTRI/TEMA joint committee to review the fouling section of TEMA standards. Heat. Trans. Eng. 11, No. 1, 73. L. , 1994, Process Heat Transfer. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 1 some of the factors that contribute to the cost of fouling were mentioned. It is the purpose of this chapter to give more detail in respect of these costs. Attempts have been made to make estimates of the overall costs of fouling in terms of particular processes or in particular countries.

E . e. the Reynolds number has been doubled due to the presence of the deposit. In addition the roughness of the deposit surface will be different from the clean heat exchanger surface roughness (usually greater) which will result in a change in the level of turbulence particularly near the surface. Greater roughness will produce greater turbulence with its enhancement of heat transfer or a smoother surface may reduce the level of turbulence. An alternative statement describing the effects of fouling may be made on this basis [Bott and Walker 1971 ].

In general terms for instance, a liquid with a high viscosity will have a low Reynolds number and hence it is likely to flow under laminar conditions, and a liquid with a high density is likely to be turbulent under flowing conditions. The velocity distribution is different under these two regimes. Under laminar conditions the velocity profile is a parabola (see Fig. 1) and the mean velocity of flow is half the velocity at the centre of the tube (the maximum velocity). Under turbulent conditions the velocity profile is no longer parabolic but is as shown on Fig.

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