By Denis Judd, Peter Slinn
Booklet through Judd, D.
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Additional info for The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, 1902–80
In 1go1, indeed, emigrants from Britain and France accounted for only 30 per cent of the total intake; 70 per cent came from less traditional sources. This shift in 28 The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, 1902-80 emigration patterns meant that by 1911 the ratio of British and French to the rest in the total population was only 83 per cent compared with 92 per cent in 1871. 23 All this meant that flesh was being put on to the bones of the Dominion of Canada, even though not all the parts of the body yet functioned smoothly.
Certainly he was the dominating political figure of the first decade of the new federation. He led three administrations between 1901 and 1910: that of 1903-4 as a Liberal, with Labour support; from 1905-8, again with Labour backing; and from 1909-10 as the leader ofa coalition of anti-Labour parties. With his background of the law and journalism, the eloquent, immaculate and persuasive Deakin was an impressive personality not only in Australia but within the wider imperial context. 25 Apart from the tariff question, defence was a major consideration of the new Commonwealth.
Although these measures aroused hostility among Conservative elements in Britain, and among the white community in India, they were not as radical as their critics claimed. The Indians appointed to the various councils were moderates rather than revolutionaries. The key appointment to the Viceroy's Council went to S. P. Sinha, whom Minto preferred to the other potential appointee on the grounds that 'Sinha is comparatively white, whilst Mookerjee is as black -as my hat! ' 33 The expansion of the central and provincial Legislative Council introduced communal representation (a clear victory for Minto and for the Muslim League), as well as representation for landlords and chambers of commerce.