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The Formation of the English Kingdom in the Tenth Century by George Molyneaux

By George Molyneaux

The principal argument of The Formation of the English country within the 10th Century is that the English nation which existed on the time of the Norman Conquest was once outlined by way of the geographical parameters of a suite of administrative reforms carried out within the mid- to past due 10th century, and never via a imaginative and prescient of English cohesion going again to Alfred the nice (871-899).

In the 1st half the 10th century, successive contributors of the Cerdicing dynasty confirmed a free domination over the opposite nice potentates in Britain. They have been celebrated as kings of the total island, yet even of their Wessex heartlands they most likely had few ability to frequently control the behavior of the final population. distinctive research of cash, shires, enormous quantities, and wapentakes means that it used to be merely round the time of Edgar (957/9-975) that the Cerdicing kings constructed the particularly standardised administrative equipment of the so-called 'Anglo-Saxon state'. This considerably elevated their skill to impinge upon the lives of normal humans residing among the Channel and the Tees, and served to mark that sector off from the remainder of the island. the consequent cleft undermined the belief of a pan-British realm, and demarcated the early English nation as a different and coherent political unit.

In this quantity, George Molyneaux areas the formation of the English nation in a ecu viewpoint, and demanding situations the thought that its improvement used to be remarkable: the Cerdicings have been just one of numerous ruling dynasties round the fringes of the previous Carolingian Empire for which the overdue 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries have been a time of territorial growth and consolidation.

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1035–1040) Edward the Exile (d. 1057) Cerdicing and Scandinavian kings are indicated in capitals, together with the dates of their reigns. For a more detailed genealogical tree, see P. Stafford, ‘The King’s Wife in Wessex, 800–1066’ , P&P, 91 (1981), pp. 8–9. Fig. 1. The Cerdicings, 802–1066: a selective genealogical tree. 20 The Formation of the English Kingdom in the Tenth Century stock’ of annals running from Julius Caesar’s arrival in Britain to 890×892. This ‘common stock’ was probably put together around the latter date, drawing on oral tradition and earlier texts, and possibly the writer’s personal knowledge and imagin­ ation.

Marten, ‘The Shiring of East Anglia: An Alternative Hypothesis’, Historical Research, 81 (2008), pp. 1, ed. and trans. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson, and M. Winterbottom (2 vols, Oxford, 1998–9), i, 210. 59 Blackburn, ‘Currency under the Vikings. Part 2’, pp. 209–17. 60 For a map of fortifications recorded during Edward’s reign, see J. Baker and S. Brookes, Beyond the Burghal Hidage: Anglo-Saxon Civil Defence in the Viking Age (Leiden, 2013), p. 154. 61 ASC A 918; Charles-Edwards, Wales, pp. 494–510.

Alfred’s victory seems to have been followed by fourteen years of relative calm, during which his forces appear to have been involved in only intermittent and fairly minor military engagements. 38 The first definite evidence of Æthelred’s submission comes from 883, when he issued a charter ‘with the leave and cognisance of King Alfred’; this document gave Æthelred 31 Below, p. 32. 6 (p. 54). 32 ASC A 919. 33 Above, pp. 2–4. 34 ASC ABCDE 944. 6 (p. 54). 36 ASC D 1065. See also ASC C 1065; De obsessione Dunelmi, ed.

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