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The Governance of ROME by Karl Loewenstein (auth.)

By Karl Loewenstein (auth.)

Next to the Bible, Shakespeare, the French revolution and Napoleon, old Rome is without doubt one of the so much plowed-through fields of ancient adventure. one of many really nice sessions of heritage, Rome, over the centuries, deservedly has attracted the passionate cognizance of historians, philologists and, extra lately, archeologists. on account that Roman legislations constituted the resource of the felony lifetime of such a lot of Western Europe, the felony occupation had a sound curiosity. Veritable libraries were equipped round the historical past of Rome. long ago confmed more often than not to Italian, German, and French students the fascination with issues Roman through now has unfold to different civilized countries in­ cluding the Anglo-Saxon. one of the participants to our wisdom of old Rome are the various nice minds in historical past and legislation. Our bibliography - selective, as neces­ sarily it needs to be - files remarkable generalists in addition to many of the various experts that have been important for our project. Why, then, one other examine of the Roman political civilization and person who, no less than measured via quantity and energy, isn't really altogether insubstantial? And why, should be additional, one offered by means of an writer who, no matter what his attractiveness in different fields, ostensibly is an intruder of the classical self-discipline? those are valid questions that are supposed to be truthfully responded. through education and avocation the writer is a constitutional attorney or, really, a political scientist basically attracted to the operation of governmental institutions.

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This occurred, for example, as early as (around) 494 (secessio plebis ill montem sacrum) (probably to the Aventine) and as late as again 287 (to the Gianiculo); in the latter case the split led to the enactment of the lex Hortensia (286) whose rank in Roman constitutional history may be likened to the Great Reform in England (r832). Whether in such cases all plebeians maintaine2 solidarity, or whether some of the wealthy free members of the plebeian order held neutrality to be the better part of valor, makes little difference.

11 16 THE PERIOD OF THE MYTHOLOGICAL KINGS roots in the pre-literary past which the basically conservative Romans - here, as in many other aspects, akin to the British - carefully preserved. Beyond this, certain general facts emerge from the early Roman history. Different from the oriental environment, the mentality of the Indo-European people operating the early Roman institutions prevented the emergence of the absolute rule of the power-holders as well as of a full-fledged theocracy. From its beginnings Roman government was, and remained so throughout, secular in character.

A new political order had come into being in which the landowning ruling class of the patrician gentes and the Senate as its representative organ, to apply a modern term, assumed and exercised sovereignty. However, the evolution, over the next centuries, similar to the sociopolitical gradualism of England, proceeded slowly and without destroying the institutional framework towards the creation of a new society as the basis of the political order. 2. Patricians and Plebeians: The Dual State The decisive factor of the history of the early Roman republic is the class struggle between patricians and plebeians.

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