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The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 8, The American and by Elliot H. Goodwin

By Elliot H. Goodwin

This quantity of the the hot Cambridge glossy heritage appears to be like in particular on the American and French Revolutions within the eighteenth century.

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Extra resources for The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 8, The American and French Revolutions, 1763-93 (The New Cambridge Modern History)

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1 Already by 1790 the social structure of Britain was visibly changing into that urbanised and industrialised community which came into being during the next half-century. Even by 1793, however, the growth of the factory system—even in the textile industry—was still in its early stages. The industrial revolution had begun, but had not yet swung into its full momentum. In most regions of continental Europe outside the sphere of the Atlantic community, the most pronounced political tendency of the period 1763-89 was towards systems of government traditionally known as 'Enlightened Despotism'.

3. 1 Though this measure was a compromise devised to leave the fiscal exemption of the nobility intact for the time being by making it possible for the unprivileged to sustain a greater weight of state taxation, the empress had thus embarked on a policy of social reform which her son was later to carry to its logical conclusion by the abolition of serfdom. Equally important were the consequences of papal resistance to the government's demands for clerical contributions to public revenues, for from 1768 onwards the Austrian clergy were taxed without papal dispensation and in 1769 the dissolution of the monasteries and the diversion of their endowments first to more general ecclesiastical purposes and then to charitable and educational uses was begun.

Reinhard's article, 'FJite et Noblesse dans la seconde moitie du XVIIIe siecle', Revue d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, vol. m (1956), pp. 5-37. * Cf. E. J. Hobsbawm's The Age of Revolution, Europe 1789-1848 (London, 1962), ch. 11. 1 Already by 1790 the social structure of Britain was visibly changing into that urbanised and industrialised community which came into being during the next half-century. Even by 1793, however, the growth of the factory system—even in the textile industry—was still in its early stages.

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