By Dieter Suter

This ebook offers a throrough advent to the interplay of atoms and atomic ions with optical and magnetic fields. the writer areas specific emphasis at the wealth of significant multilevel results, the place atomic vapors convey anisotropic habit. in addition to masking the vintage two-level atom method of light-atom interactions, Suter describes intimately a basic multilevel formalism, which he makes use of to debate optical pumping, two-dimensional spectroscopy and nonlinear optical dynamics. the ultimate bankruptcy bargains with the mechanical results of sunshine, together with the cooling and trapping of atoms. With complete theoretical and experimental insurance, and over 250 illustrations, the e-book could be of significant curiosity to graduate scholars of laser spectroscopy, quantum electronics and quantum optics, and to researchers in those fields.

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**Example text**

5) is the so-called Debye-Hiickel radius. The solution of Eq. 4) describes an exponential decrease with distance from the plasma boundary. 5) has the form E = E, exp(-x/r,), where x is the distance from the plasma boundary in the normal direction. When the electron and ion temperatures are different, then Eq. 3) has the form and we will obtain the same results as above, except that the Debye-Huckel radius takes the more general form Now let us calculate the field from a test charge placed in a plasma.

Thus the interaction potential at the mean distance between particles (& N e - ' / 3 )is equal to IUI e2N:/3, and because the mean thermal energy of the particles is of the order of T (the plasma temperature expressed in energy units), the condition for a plasma to be ideal is - - where y is called the plasma parameter. 1). 2 CHARGED PARTICLES IN A GAS We define a weakly ionized gas as a gas with a small concentration of charged particles. Nevertheless, some properties of the weakly ionized gas are governed by the charged particles.

But the parameters of this beam can be limited by internal electric fields that arise due to electron charges. We can find the properties of such a beam, created between two flat plates a distance L apart, with an electric potential U, between them. The electron current density j is constant in the gap, because electrons neither are produced nor recombine in the gap. This gives j = eN,( x ) u,( x ) = const, where x is the distance from the cathode, N, is the electron number density, u, = is the electron velocity, and the electric potential is zero at the cathode surface, that is, U(0) = 0.