By Martin van Creveld
The country, which because the heart of the 17th century has been an important of all smooth associations, is in decline. From Western Europe to Africa, many present states are both combining into greater groups or falling aside. a lot of their features usually are taken over by way of various corporations that, no matter what their unique nature, aren't states. during this exact quantity Martin van Creveld lines the tale of the country from its beginnings to its finish. beginning with the easiest political enterprises that ever existed, he publications the reader throughout the origins of the nation, its improvement, its apotheosis in the course of the global Wars, and its unfold from its unique domestic in Western Europe to hide the globe. In doing so, he presents a desirable heritage of presidency from its origins to the current day. This unique booklet will of curiosity to historians, political scientists and sociologists.
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Fuks, ‘‘The Sharing of Property by the Rich with the Poor in Greek Theory and Practice,’’ Scripta Classica Israelica, 5, 1979–80, pp. 46–63. City-states 33 memorated in inscriptions set up either by the grateful recipients or by the donors themselves. Often citizens paid more than they had to as a means for obtaining popularity, inﬂuence, and, in the not unlikely eventuality of being taken to court, a measure of sympathy among the jurors; and indeed our knowledge of the subject owes much to cases of this sort.
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As they were governed not by the few but by the many, classical city-states failed to develop either specialized personnel, large administrative machines, or regular armed forces. It was a matter of principle that, with a few exceptions (such as those which, in some cities, restricted certain priesthoods to the members of certain families), any citizen could become a magistrate; after a prolonged struggle which pitted patricians against plebeians this became true even in Rome. Nor was there any attempt to prepare or train professional personnel in such ﬁelds as police work, accounting, diplomacy, etc.