By International Atomic Energy Agency. Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation
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Extra info for The role of instrumentation and control systems in power uprating projects for nuclear power plants
One plant operated slightly in excess of its 102% analysed limit. The potential to exceed reactor power limits existed in three events, with the primary cause being software error or fluid leakage. Six of the 14 events involved software and/or programming issues with the primary causes being undetected instrument biases or software problems. Nine of the 14 reported events involved human errors. Seven of the nine involved some type of error, oversight or lack of knowledge on the part of the vendor.
MAIN INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL BENEFITS IN RELATION TO POWER UPRATING Any modernization project, including a power uprating project, provides a good opportunity to improve areas where the I&C design is judged to be deficient against modern standards or where the equipment is becoming obsolescent or unreliable. The introduction of more modern I&C then brings general benefits in terms of increased functionality, improved reliability, increased accuracy, increased testability, better failure diagnostics, ease of maintainability, lower maintenance costs, etc.
Although the latest reports indicate that this particular problem has been overcome, the NRC has reopened critical examination of the Caldon topical report to establish that hardware reliability issues do not translate into reduced measurement uncertainty. 35 9. KEY RECOMMENDATIONS The following is a list of specific recommendations in addition to those given in the body of this report. e. less than 2% RTP), it is important to: — Fully understand the safety and technical bases for the claimed margins and limits; — Fully evaluate the areas of potential measurement uncertainty, to implement all design and operational improvement options for minimizing this uncertainty, and to establish suitable means for on-line validation of the relevant instrumentation.