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The Russian Revolution 1900–1927 by R. Service

By R. Service

This renowned, concise and hugely readable learn discusses the most important topics and debates concerning the Russian Revolution. Robert Service's energetic research examines:
• nation and society less than the Romanovs from 1900
• the February and October Revolutions of 1917
• the ultimate years of the Romanov dynasty and the beginning of the Soviet order
• comparisons with political, social and fiscal tendencies somewhere else within the world
• the level to which the later improvement of the USSR used to be conditioned by means of the October Revolution.

Clear and incisive, the fourth version has been completely revised and up-to-date within the mild of the newest examine and lines a brand new scene-setting advent and maps. Service's textual content is still the basic start line for a person learning this tumultuous interval within the historical past of Russia and the realm within the 20th century.

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The poor soil quality in northern Russia meant that the region had to import grain and potatoes to subsist; and central Russia, which had traditionally exported its surplus northwards in the previous century, failed to increase its output before the First World War as fast as the rise in its population [216: 6-7]. Russian agriculture, then, was poised precariously between painstakingly won success and occasional ruin. The run of good harvests from 1909 to 1913 concealed the problems. Russian industry, too, faced dilemmas.

Probably social antagonisms were too unyielding. Cultural integration can succeed by appealing to symbols of unity that can induce a 21 sympathetic resonance in society. All the same, there were few campaigns of even a philanthropic nature even though Russians rich and poor gave alms generously to beggars. Admittedly the zemstva ran some hospitals, but the resultant tax burden was resented by peasants; and in the towns, a few 'people's houses' were privately established to supplY. workers with reading clubs [112: 77-8].

Production of agricultural implements crashed to 15 per cent ofthe pre-war level [222: 10]. There was little a peasant could buy even if he had a mind to. By 1916, nearly four-fifths of the machine-construction business was being given over to the requirements of the Imperial forces [148: 325]. By and large, industry satisfied the state's demands in this respect. Hundreds of factories were converted to military work; but the unavoidable consequence was that output for the civilian market suffered.

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