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Atomic Nuclear Physics

The spectrum of atomic hydrogen by G W Series

By G W Series

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Quantum optics: quantum theories of spontaneous emission

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91Þ where mi ðE0 Þ and mi ðEk Þ are the total mass attenuation coefficients for the ith element at the energy of incident radiation ðE0 Þ and characteristic radiation of the element k ðEk Þ, respectively, mk ðE0 Þ is the total mass attenuation coefficient for the element k at the energy E0, and mðEk Þ is the total mass attenuation coefficient for the whole specimen at the energy Ek . 1. Thin-SampleTechnique If the total mass per unit area of a given sample m ¼ rT is small, Eq. (90) simplifies to Iithin ðEi Þ ¼ G eðEi Þai ðE0 ÞI0 ðE0 Þm sin C1 ð92Þ The relative error resulting from applying Eq.

45)] ignores changes in the atomic wave function resulting from changes in the molecular, chemical, or crystalline environment of an atom. Above 10 keV, errors from this approximation are expected to be less than a few percent (except in the regions just above absorption edges), but at very low energies (10–100 eV), errors of a factor of 2 can occur (Deslattes, 1969). For situations more complicated than the narrow-beam geometry, the attenuation is still basically exponential, but it is modified by two additional factors.

Certain x-ray lines or bands appear or disappear with chemical combinations. In the case of the K series, the most noticeable chemical effects on x-ray emission are seen in spectra from low-Z elements (4 Z 17). The L series shows as large or even larger changes with chemical combination of the elements than K series. The valence effects in L spectra have been observed for elements of the first transition series and others nearby in the periodic table. Because the fine features of x-ray emission spectra may be applied to determine how each element is chemically combined in the sample (speciation), the valence effects found numerous applications in such fields as physics of solids and surface or near-surface characterization.

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