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The Use of Words in Context: The Vocabulary of Collage by John W. Black, Cleavonne S. Stratton, Alan C. Nichols,

By John W. Black, Cleavonne S. Stratton, Alan C. Nichols, Marian Ausherman Chavez

The Speech scenario is a time period worn with age within the instructing of public talking in the USA. That it really is made out of party, speaker, and subject is a gross oversimplification. it is usually problem, nervousness, emotion, worry, accountability, faults of reminiscence, and instants of satisfaction. Out of the situations come up a rise in middle price, a transformation in blood strain, an irregular development of respiring, a obvious construct­ up in perspiration, and an ongoing assessment. for college students this can be in basic terms a grade or even a sequence of evaluative comments, most likely addressed either to the speaker and the opposite contributors, the viewers. it might entail a replaying of a checklist of the speech, certainly a videotape. most crucial is the lasting effect that is still with all the members. What of the vocabulary of the speaker less than the conditions of the speech scenario? This speaker - within the significant parts of this paintings we might say, "this younger guy" - has hung out looking a suitable subject. He has defined a composition round a relevant notion or thesis. He has marshaled facts, information. He has framed a gap paragraph. He has been admonished to not supply an essay, yet to try for viewers touch, interpersonal communique. He makes his audible technique via his vocabulary and accompanying phonology. below the stress, the speaker repeats; he provides meaningless vocalizations during periods that may logically be pauses. There are slips of the tongue. At worst, failing, he withdraws to look ahead to one other day.

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The early speakers were in a military posture assigned to a modified liberal arts program; the second, a group of men in a liberal arts college. The first group would become officers upon completing the oneyear program; the second was heavily weighted with preprofessional students. Homogeneity within each group of students rested with identical academic programs and immediate activities in one instance and merely "Fight for 01' Siwash" in the other. Twenty-eight of the singular words of Set 1 related to warfare, for example, army, bomb, antiaircraft.

Since "Thorndike'S rules" for reducing the corpus had been the basis for determining the entries of the predecessor vocabulary they - (modified as explained above) - were applied to the computer printout of the present one. They were then applied to the two vocabularies combined. Thus if work and worker were in the vocabulary generated in 1943-45 and works and working in the present one -- all single occurrences --~ words would appear in Appendix I as work with four occurrences. The reader may view and apply this Appendix as two vocabularies of equal size representing two periods; or he may use it as a single vocabulary of classroom speaking.

The other is the opposite, words occurring only in the more recent speeches. Please study the lists for not more than 15 minutes and tell me which packet goes with which period. The words were those of Table 2. There was no indication of the numbers of occurrences of a word. All 18 of the participants gave the correct response. Under questioning the subjects gave a variety of answers. Some spoke of "new words": abortion, actually; others of "old words": barracks, K-ration. Some were impressed by "military words"; yet none associated the years 1943-45 with World War II.

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