By John M. Blatt, Victor F. Weisskopf

The final two decades have witnessed a major improvement of nuclear physics. various information have gathered and plenty of experimental proof are identified. because the experimental options have completed higher and larger perfection, the theoretical research and interpretation of those facts became correspondingly extra actual and particular. the advance of nuclear physics has trusted the improvement of physics as a complete. whereas there have been fascinating speculations approximately nuclear structure as early as 1922, it used to be very unlikely to make any quantitative thought of even the best nucleus till the invention of quantum mechanics at the one hand, and the improvement of experimental equipment sufficiently delicate to realize the presence of a impartial particle (the neutron) however. The additional improvement of our knowing of the nucleus has depended, and nonetheless relies, at the improvement of ever extra robust experimental ideas for measuring nuclear homes and extra strong theoretical suggestions for correlating those houses. essentially each "simple," "reasonable," and "plausible" assumption made in theoretical nuclear physics has grew to become out to be wanting refinement; and the varied makes an attempt to derive nuclear forces and the homes of nuclei from a extra" basic" method than the research of the knowledge have proved unsuccessful to date. Nuclear physics is on no account a accomplished edifice.

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Hence quadrupole moments are necessarily zero in states whose angular momentum is zero or i-. Unlike the electric dipole moment, the quadrupole moment operator e (3z 2 - r2) is an even function under inversion of the coordinate system. Hence the parity rule does not prevent nuclei from having a permanent quadrupole moment. 15), is a function of the state 1/1 of the nucleus. In practice we are interested in only one special case, where 1/1 is the ground state. This does not specify the wave function completely, however.

8r 87__ O nl__ ••~--------------------------____________________________________________ e O--_x 0"""'" Cd 113 8 0119-'" 117 - 8n llS 111 Pb20~~ pt 195 Hgl~ 0 ........... Yb171 C 13 FIG. 2. The magnetic moments (in Bohr magnetons) of nuclei with an even number of protons (Z) and an odd number of neutrons (N), plotted against the nuclear angular momentum I. The lower (horizontal) straight line is computed from the Schmidt model assuming I = I -! 54) with gL =0]; the upper curve connects values of I' computed from the Schmidt model assuming 1=1 +!

General Properties of the Nucleus 2 protons and 1 electron in H2; 6 protons and 3 electrons in Li 6 ; 14 protons and 7 electrons in N14. The total spin would be a halfintegral multiple of h. The total angular momentum of a nucleus is currently referred to as its "spin," even though the total angular momentum includes both orbital and intrinsic angular momenta whereas the term "spin" is usually reserved for intrinsic angular momenta of elementary particles. This unfortunate terminology for the angular momentum of nuclei was introduced at a time when their internal structure was not yet in the center of interest.