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Traditional Romanian Village Communities: The Transition by Henri H. Stahl

By Henri H. Stahl

Professor Henri Stahl is considered one of japanese Europe's best specialists on peasant societies. For over thirty years he has studied peasant village groups in Romania, either within the box and from wide-ranging documentary assets. This e-book, one in all Professor Stahl's significant works, relies in this vast learn. The booklet is a examine of the evolution of Romanian peasant society from the 13th century to the current, focusing rather at the village groups of Wallachia and Moldavia, during which till fairly lately communal villages nonetheless existed. via a comparability of this sort of village to start with with villages whose inhabitants used to be subjected to serfdom, and secondly with these which have been unfastened, yet with inner most instead of communal estate. Professor Stahl deals an interpretation of Romanian agrarian heritage. He argues that Romania moved from a communal kind of social association to a type of tardy feudalism, provoked by means of the access of capitalist marketplace forces.

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In this, our “diplomatic” Services have an 2 diplomacy rather than such issues as recruitment, working conditions and the diplomatic career structure. UK National Archives (UKNA), Kew, CAB 21/5612, Caccia to Trend (1 January 1964), set out a plan to put Plowden into effect; CAB 130/196, GEN 832/1st (17 January); CAB 128/38, CC(64)10 (6 February); and CAB 129/116, CP(64)34 (4 February 1964). Plowden 33 indispensable part to play. ’ Then again, it also declared that ‘efficient diplomacy . . 3 The Plowden Report was remarkably clear in establishing the meaning and scope of diplomatic work.

Yet it also accepted the validity of the ‘marriage bar’. It was assumed until then that a married woman would put her husband’s career before her own and would be unable to combine a diplomatic post with having children. 43 The lack of proper equal opportunities had many adverse repercussions. 44 However, there were compensations: Juliet Campbell, who joined the FO in 1957, felt that ‘because there were so few young women around at my sort of level virtually everybody . . 47 Even in the mid-1970s, there were still concerns about the way the FCO was managed.

This helped, perhaps, to foster the notion that the FO was a ‘pro-Arab’ institution; it required less extensive training to provide the needs of the embassy in Israel. Also known as a ‘spy school’, MECAS graduates included a number of future permanent under-secretaries, such as Anthony Acland (1982–6) and John Coles (1994–7). 40 Shifts were certainly in train by then, though, that would revolutionise the make-up of the Diplomatic Service over the next generation. Easier foreign travel, improvements in the teaching of foreign languages, the rise of a less deferential younger generation, the impact of the feminist movement, the expansion of the universities, as well as administrative decisions on late entrants, early retirements and the like: all of these were factors that helped to broaden the social background of the FO, breaking up the idea of a separate caste in control of policy overseas.

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