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Tragic views of the human condition : cross-cultural by Lourens Minnema

By Lourens Minnema

Can tragic perspectives of the human situation as recognized to Westerners via Greek and Shakespearean tragedy be pointed out outdoors ecu tradition, within the Indian tradition of Hindu epic drama? In what respects can the Mahabharata epic's and the Bhagavadgita's perspectives of the human situation be referred to as ‘tragic' within the Greek and Shakespearean senses of the word?

Tragic perspectives of the human situation are essentially embedded in tales. purely afterwards are those perspectives expounded in theories of tragedy and in philosophical anthropologies. Minnema identifies those embedded perspectives of human nature by way of discussing the ways that tragic tales elevate a number of anthropological issues―issues comparable to dealing with evil, pain, conflict, demise, values, energy, sacrifice, ritual, verbal exchange, gender, honour, injustice, wisdom, destiny, freedom. every one bankruptcy represents one cluster of tragic matters which are explored by way of their specific (Greek, English, Indian) settings sooner than being in comparison cross-culturally. after all, the underlying query is: are Indian perspectives of the human situation very diverse from Western views?

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One can stick to a value for value’s sake, despite its hopelessness. Besides, the more a tragedy tends to total despair while sticking to a value, the more it is felt to be tragic. It makes all the difference whether Steiner’s definition is used essentialistically or prototypically. Steiner’s phrasing is essentialistic. That is why Eagleton has a point. 74 ‘Tragedy’ (‘the tragic’) can imply a tragic world view, but the notion cannot be defined exclusively in terms of a tragic world view. ‘Tragedy’ can be a way of being but also a way of seeing.

The Bhagavadgita- constitutes112 the very heart of that plot – the moment when the military conflict is about to break out on the battlefield. Within its narrative corpus, the epic has philosophical sections. These are called the ‘didactic sections’ because, within the context of the narrative, they are put into the mouths of characters who take on the role of teachers. The two most important didactic expositions are in the twelfth book, the ‘Book of Peace’ (S´a-nti-parvan) by Bhishma, and within the sixth book, in the ‘Song of the Lord’ (Bhagavadgita-) by Krishna, respectively.

First of all, tragic conflict is extreme. 12 Secondly, the conflict involves factors such as past action, ignorance and divine intervention, factors that go beyond choices, clashing between free human agents. Burian mentions the example of the maddening of Heracles in Heracles. In addition, one may also think of the religious curse that struck the entire Labdacid dynasty to which Oedipus, Narrative aspects 17 Eteocles, Polyneices, Antigone and Creon belong – a common fate which they re-enact over the generations.

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