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Environmental Economics

Water supply in emergency situations by Yair Sharan, Abraham Tal, Harry Coccossis

By Yair Sharan, Abraham Tal, Harry Coccossis

Water is vital for all times and the set off for this ebook is within the expanding threats to uninterrupted, high quality water to massive concentrations of inhabitants, which come with normal and artifical, the latter together with unintended and, regrettably, additionally intentional. Israel particularly knows the dangers of terror, together with to its water provide and it's not stunning that the initiative for a NATO workshop, the result of that's awarded right here, got here from this country.

This booklet displays the result of a 3 day NATO complex Workshop entitled 'Supply of Water to towns in Emergency events' equipped through ICTAF at Tel-Aviv college and The collage of Thessaly, division of making plans and neighborhood improvement and subsidized through the NATO safety via technology programme. a few 35 specialists from 14 nations from Europe, the center East and Asia assembled in Tel-Aviv for this event.

The 20 papers offered and the discussions which happened during the workshop light up a huge spectrum of difficulties and of matters to the orderly water provide within the assorted partaking international locations starting from floods, via infection as a result of deteriorated infrastructure and to a shockingly low obstacle concerning intentional terror-related threats. we discover inadequate preparedness in lots of international locations to deal with critical disruption of water supply.

We count on exposure and dialogue to elevate the extent of wisdom of correct determination makers around the world to this crucial factor and to inspire improvement and implementation of tactics and capacity for battling the threat.

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3. 1. AFTER INITIAL DETECTION, RESPOND IMMEDIATELY WHILE VERIFYING AFTERWARDS Water velocity in a water supply system is about 1 m3\s. Therefore, time is a primordial factor in contamination spread along the system. In order to minimize the damage caused by contamination of water, it is essential to act with maximum speed to achieve minimum spread of the contaminant and minimum of consumers that are exposed to contaminated water. WATER QUALITY SECURITY MANAGEMENT 20 Therefore, after initial detection of contamination indications, there is a need for immediate response that can be to shut down the supply from the suspected contaminated water, by closing parts of the system or by changing operation of the water distribution system in such a way that the suspected water should be directed away from consumers.

Another, though rare, hazard that should be taken into account is intended sabotage. Emergency situations resulting from hazards have impacts on economic, environmental, or social sectors, and can affect more than one sector at a time. The probability and severity of a hazard together with the vulnerability of the system, give us an indication of the risk involved. Risk has technical, scientific, and social dimensions, as it depends also on human activities and public perception on what is risk and to what point is it acceptable (Rees, 2002).

ROUTINELY EXERCISE THESE PROCEDURES The only way to assure that the procedures will be put into effect correctly when the situation arrives is by exercising the people involved in the procedures application. Therefore, a routine plan for carrying out exercises at all levels should be implemented. Lessons from these exercises and drills should be learned and applied continuously. 4. Conclusion In view of the threats posed by terror attacks, natural disasters and operational mishaps to drinking water distribution systems, water utilities should plan in advance and implement those plans on the ways to cope with water distribution interruptions or contamination, due to one of those threats taking place.

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