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Additional info for Why of Consumption: Contemporary Perspectives on Consumer Motives, Goals and Desires (Routledge Studies in Interpretive Marketing Research)
A related notion is expressed in Anzai and Simon (1979), who demonstrate that inexperienced problem-solvers begin at a concrete level and over time organize their experiences into patterns of success and failure in order to derive more general and powerful problem-solving strategies. Both goal discovery and goal organization are likely to involve attribution processes, whereby an actor attempts to uncover higher-level, more abstract reasons for his/ her lower-level goals (see Folkes 1984). GOAL STRUCTURES AND GOAL-DETERMINATION PROCESSES 23 Adaptation Adaptation refers to the goal determination process whereby goals are shaped by contextual factors.
Thus, an important avenue for future research is to determine how goals at various levels are traded off, and when and how goals at other levels in the goal structure are used to help resolve conflict. In addition, note that approaches other than simple approach/avoidance to goal conflict are also possible (Keeney 1988; Slovic et al. 1988). For example, the consumer may discover or synthesize new alternatives or approaches which allow conflicting goals to be satisfied. 2) when he encountered goal conflict between his preferences regarding furniture appearance, size of bookcase, and price.
Higher-level goals should also be more salient and incorporation more likely when consumer GOAL STRUCTURES AND GOAL-DETERMINATION PROCESSES 25 involvement in a purchase is relatively high (Celsi and Olson 1988; Walker and Olson 1997). Correspondingly, abstraction is likely to play a substantial role in goal determination when problem-solving direction is not provided by salient higherlevel goals (Park and Smith 1989). In addition, abstraction through discovery processes may be a strong possibility when concrete features of alternatives induce affective reactions in the decision-maker (Coombs, Dawes, and Tversky 1970; West 1996).