By Melanie Ilič (auth.)
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Extra resources for Women Workers in the Soviet Interwar Economy: From ‘Protection’ to ‘Equality’
53 Girls and young women were widely employed in the textiles and chemical industries. 7 per cent of industrial workers. 55 Both the number and proportion of women employed in industry continued to rise until 1917, by which time, according to Mints, women 26 Women Workers in the Soviet Interwar Economy constituted nearer 40 per cent of the industrial labour force. ) Tsarist policies on the regulation of women's labour focused mainly on the prohibition of female employment on night shifts and in some of the potentially injurious occupations.
The period of economic recovery lasted until 1926, by which time both agriculture and many industrial sectors had been restored to their pre-war levels of output. 9 By the early 1920s evidence presented by some of the western visitors to Soviet Russia in these years suggested that many workers, especially those with Bolshevik sympathies, had developed a new attitude towards work. 10 Structures had been introduced which allowed industrial employees greater involvement in the day-to-day running of enterprises and which promoted a feeling of ownership in the production process.
42 Women were, therefore, often relegated to unskilled tasks and their labour remained undervalued in relation to men's. 43 Women undoubtedly also often had to contend with a hostile reception from their male colleagues in the workplace. 44 A quota system was 38 Women Workers in the Soviet Interwar Economy introduced in an attempt to secure places for female workers, particularly young women, on special technical training programmes, but these quotas were not always adhered to. Enterprise managers were responsible for drawing up lists of women to be specially trained for more highly skilled work, but adherence to this policy was often tokenistic.