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Your Body. How It Works. Digestion and Nutrition by Robert J. Sullivan, Denton A., M.D. Cooley

By Robert J. Sullivan, Denton A., M.D. Cooley

You cannot stay with out right food, and the digestive method aids in getting that foodstuff into your physique. know about fit consuming and the method of digestion with this nice booklet.

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Extra info for Your Body. How It Works. Digestion and Nutrition

Sample text

There are two components to the process: physical and chemical. The physical aspects of digestion in the mouth occur when we bite, tear, and chew food. This breaks the food into smaller, but still fairly large, chunks of food. Chemical digestion in the mouth involves saliva. Most of the saliva is secreted by three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands are found under the tongue and in front of the masseter muscle, the muscle that provides most of the force in biting.

Most of the epithelial layer is made up of a single layer of cells called columnar epithelial cells. These cells are lined up like columns with one end exposed to the material in the digestive tube and the other end forming the connection between the epithelial layer and the tissue beneath the lining. Everything absorbed into the body must pass through these cells. In addition to the columnar cells, mucus-secreting cells called goblet cells because of their unique shape (narrow bottom and wider top) are found throughout the tube.

Absorption of nutrients is complete, but digestion is not. Some of the water is absorbed in the large intestines and very little is excreted in the feces. CONNECTIONS A bolus of food and saliva enters the stomach and is combined with digestive juices that are a mixture of strong acid and enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins and lipids. The digestion of starch is halted by the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis allow the stomach to compress its contents in all directions, blending the nutrients with digestive juices.

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